Eliminate production losses due to equipment status, or in other words, keep equipment in a position to produce at maximum capacity, the expected quality products, with no unscheduled stops.
Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) has its origins in the United States, where many manufacturing companies applied certain practices to prevent failures and thereby prevent untimely stoppages and emergency repairs. In the postwar period, as Japan rebuilt its economy, several Japanese managers and engineers visited this plants to take ideas and implement them in Japan.
It was at Nippondenso, a Toyota auto parts factory, where maintenance concepts were applied for the first-time by involving all the employees of the organization (not just maintenance specialists). Special emphasis was placed on the implementation of practices in which operators were responsible for the maintenance and care of their equipment. That is why the company won the prize for the most distinguished plant by the Japanese Institute of Plant Maintenance for the first time in 1971. It was then when Seiichi Nakajima published a description of the process of implementing this system, the elements that compose it, and the way in which it should be implemented. In 1987, this system returned to its homeland, with Kodak being the first company to implement TPM in the U.S.
Usually, for every three hundred unattended minor problems, such as lack of cleanliness, lubrication, etc. thirty medium problems are generated and from these, one major problem occurs, such as an expensive component replacement.
Maintenance costs may represent between 15% to 40% of total manufacturing costs.Emergency repairs cost at least three times more than if the same repairs had been planed.58% of the cost of maintenance is caused by poor operation.17% of the cost of maintenance is caused by poor lubrication.
These are impressive numbers we have to prevent!
Total Productive Maintenance is an improvement methodology that allows the continuity of any operation through the following concepts:
- Zero defects.
- Zero accidents.
- Total participation of all the employees.
In manufacturing companies, the maintenance of machines usually represents a latent problem of potential downtime and stoppage.
In traditional companies, personal care and maintenance are not a priority and thus resources are generally not allocated for:
- Developing care and awareness programs.
- Formulating an appropriate plan of maintenance and upkeep.
- Providing adequate preventive and predictive maintenance.
- Training users in basic care.
- Developing maintenance professionals.
- Buying supplies required for proper maintenance.
- Having the necessary tools to do the job.
The truth is that the process cannot be allowed to stop delivering value to the customer due to lack of personnel or equipment. So, when people and equipment fail, large amounts of money and time have to be spent to return the continuity of the process. People who work in maintenance suffer great stress because they spend more time troubleshooting and repairing than planning and improving facilities. The reality is that in many cases, they have fallen into a vicious cycle of failure and repairing equipment when there is a lack of assigning priorities according to the level of the complaints of those in need.
The 6 pilar of Total Productive Maintenance
1. Continuos improvement.
2. Autonomous maintenance.
3. Planned maintenance.
4. Quality maintenance.
Total Productive Maintenance Benefits
The main benefit is to maintain in optimum condition all the factors that are required by the business to ensure continuity in the delivery of value. The following are additional benefits:
Achieve the maximum potential of the facilities and equipment.Significantly reduce risks.Improve the quality of products and services.Ensure the integrity of the people.Reduce costs associated with repairs, breakdowns, downtime, etc.Maximize the effectiveness of the company.Increase the lifespan of the equipment.Eliminate forced wear and tear.Remove the six big losses of equipment.Reduce energy consumption.
The 6 big losses of a team
1. Breakdowns - lost time when equipment is stopped for repairs.
2. Dead time when equipment is stopped for changeovers and setups.
3. Minor injuries.
4. Speed reduction due to adjustments, failures, or not running at a constant speed.
5. Time spent producing during the production process.
6. Defects produced while equipment is warming up after changeover or adjustment.
Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE)
This measurement is critical to evaluate the actual capacity to produce without defects to the potential capacity without defects . It is necessary to obtain the data every day to be able to perform the following calculations:
- Availability (B/A) = (Time Available - Timeout)/Available Time.
- Efficiency (D/C) = Total production/(Operating Time x Capacity)
- Quality (F/E) = (Total production - Defects and Retracted)/Total production.
- OEE = Availability x Efficiency x Quality.
In general, OEE with the following percentages are:
50% - 64% Average
65% - 74% Good
75% - 84% Very Good
>85% Excellent - world class
The goal is to increase the OEE through an efficiency increase. This can be achieved through reduction of breakdowns, waiting, minor stoppages, reduced speeds, and reduction of scrap, rework.
TPM: A metal/plastics manufacturing company had a problem of late deliveries and quality complaints from their customers. The bottle neck was a forming machine that had the most downtime. The machine was selected for a pilot project where TPM was implemented. They started with a super cleaning event and implemented autonomous maintenance by giving the operator the task of cleaning and lubricating the machine every day, as well as, designing a preventive and predictive plan for the maintenance department. After the pilot phase, the machine was put back into regular operation, ant the results were amazing. From the 60% downtime they had previously, they achieved less than 10% after 3 months. As a result, deliveries and quality improved to the point that they reached 4-Sigma level.